Friday, September 4, 2020

DuPont Essays - Chemical Companies, DuPont, Bronfman Family, Seagram

DuPont Essays - Chemical Companies, DuPont, Bronfman Family, Seagram DuPont A speculation investigation DuPont makes an assortment of high-esteem items for industry today, including polymers, synthetic compounds, filaments, and oil products...products for horticulture, gadgets, transportation, attire, food, aviation, development, and social insurance. DuPont serves clients in these and different enterprises each day, offering better things for better living as the organization plans to start its third century of logical, mechanical, business, and social accomplishment. DuPont is an exploration and innovation based concoction and vitality organization with its yearly income surpassing $39 billion. Eleuth?re Ir?n?e du Pont de Nemours, a French settler, built up DuPont in 1802 out of a little Delaware town. E.I. du Pont was an understudy of Antoine Lavoisier, the father of current science, and when he came to America he brought some of the new thoughts regarding the assembling of reliably solid black powder. His item touched off at the point when it should, in a way predictable with desires. This was enormously increased in value by the residents of the developing country, including Thomas Jefferson, who composed expressing gratitude toward du Pont for the nature of his powder, which was being utilized to clear the land at Monticello. Numerous different saints of early America owed their prosperity, and their lives, to the reliable nature of DuPont's first item. This speaks to a decent, solid beginning for an organization. DuPont, which is traveling through the most recent decade of the twentieth century and toward its third century, stresses a few things; contending internationally; honing its business center; expanding profitability; focusing on security, wellbeing, and ecological greatness; and proceeding to broaden its noteworthy science and mechanical accomplishment. One of DuPont's significant procedures is to concentrate on organizations in which DuPont has center capabilities, where DuPont can assemble upper hand. The most remarkable case of this center was the 1993 exchange wherein DuPont obtained ICI's nylon business and ICI obtained DuPont's acrylics business. This fortified the organization's position in the worldwide nylon business while stripping a business that no longer fit its portfolio. Another main consideration in the change of the organization in the1990s was the concentrate on decreasing expenses and improving efficiency. This was important to give the organization the adaptability for serious estimating and to develop piece of the overall industry and profit. DuPont had solid plants in a few nations around the globe for some a long time, what's more, their globalization pattern proceeded during the 1990s. New plants opened in Spain, Singapore, Korea, Taiwan, and China, and a significant specialized assistance community opened in Japan. In 1994, a Conoco joint endeavor started delivering oil from the Ardalin Field in the Russian Arcticthe first significant oil field brought into creation by a Russian/Western association since end of the Soviet Union. A further significant advancement was the reclamation of 156 million DuPont shares from Seagram for $8.8 billion in real money and warrants - one of the biggest stock reclamations ever. This enormous square of offers was reclaimed at a 13 percent rebate to showcase cost. While DuPont later sold some new offers, there are 18 percent less shares right now extraordinary than only preceding the reclamation. This came about in a critical open door for riches creation for our investors. The offer reclamation was made conceivable by four years of cost decrease, profitability improvement furthermore, hierarchical change that have made DuPont solid monetarily and permitted them to move conclusively and rapidly. The DuPont that rose up out of the organization's change during the 1990s has regularly been portrayed by individuals inside and outside the organization as the new DuPont. This portrayal is just incompletely proper, in light of the fact that while DuPont has changed, there are numerous things that continue as before. The center competency in science and innovation, the pledge to wellbeing, the worry for individuals, the sentiment of network, the accentuation on close to home and corporate trustworthiness, the future center, and without a doubt the eagerness to change. DuPont is an organization out for their own advantage, yet in addition generally advantageous enthusiasm of the world. What has consistently set DuPont separated is the nature of the individuals, individuals submitted to making life simpler and better for everyone, glad to be a piece of an venture making better things for better living. That was valid in 1802. What's more, it is similarly as genuine today. In the second quarter of 1995 DuPont detailed income for each portion of $1.70, up 47 percent from the $1.16 earned in the second quarter 1994. Net gain totaled $938 million, contrasted with $792 million earned in 1994. Both income per share what's more, net salary expanded 27 percent.These remarkable outcomes keep on reflecting solid income gains and continuous profitability upgrades, said DuPont Chairman Edgar S.Woolard Jr. Deals for the subsequent quarter were $11.1 billion, up 9 percent from earlier year. The second from last quarter of the 1995 business year drove DuPont to a $1.38 per share winning. This number surpassed the $.95 earned in the second from last quarter of 1994 by more than 45%. Net gain totaled $769 million contrasted with $647 million earned

Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Business Messages Essay

In a customary working environment, reminders are the typical type of business messages that are sent from officials to representatives. With the coming of innovation, the issuance of updates is frequently constrained to subjects of general intrigue, as hierarchical gatherings or strategy changes. In the event that I were a lead engineer in Cards4U, I’d amplify the utilization of quicker and increasingly proficient devices to help me in speaking with different individuals from the group, just as organization administrators and potential customers.â That implies messages will be the essential wellspring of correspondence among the colleagues, since sending and accepting messages take just a couple of moments to a couple minutes.â E-mail interchanges are advantageous, shouldn't be excessively formal, and can be gotten to whenever, anywhere.â The reminders will be used to advise the CEO or clients in regards to item introductions and updates. Since I’m a lead engineer in an inventive plan gathering, introductions utilizing PowerPoint or Flash would be valuable in displaying most recent structures and innovations.â Reports are likewise important to archive the advancement, exercises, and changes in the creation department.â Face to confront gatherings with clients are critical to build up affinity and get them to purchase your structures, or get their input. On the off chance that up close and personal gathering is absurd, phone calls can likewise be used.â Meeting the CEO for updates and improvements would likewise expect vis-à-vis encounters.â However, on the off chance that the CEO started discussion utilizing messages, at that point, I should take his lead and answer utilizing the equivalent medium.â But in the event that the message were sent through the more conventional notice, at that point the answer would likewise be of that sort. All the more significantly, in a business correspondence that I would send, the messages ought to be compact, direct forthright, and expert. References Business/Professional Writing.(1995-2004). OWL at Purdue University.â Retrieved December 4, 2007, from:â Ramsey, L. (2005). Business E-mail Messages and Professionalism.â Retrieved December 4, 2007, from, Kotelnikov, V. Successful Business Communication. Recovered December 4, 2007, from  â â â â â â

Saturday, August 22, 2020

English Is Considered As Lingua Franca English Language Essay

English Is Considered As Lingua Franca English Language Essay English is considered as most widely used language around the world. Individuals for the most part impart across societies in English everywhere throughout the world. During the procedure, it is common that numerous expressions of the neighborhood dialects get their way in and turn out to be a piece of that specific assortment of English spoken in that district. This paper targets discovering Urdu words that have become an integral part of the English language spoken in Pakistani situation. It is an investigation of Urdu credit words that got their way in English in ordinary correspondence. For the examination, the language of paper was picked as it speaks to the language being used. English every day the Dawn was chosen for the reason as it is most flowed paper in Pakistan. The paper explains that there are an enormous number of Urdu words which are a piece of English. Section I Presentation Papers have become a fundamental piece of present day life. The cutting edge man begins his day by perusing the news with some tea. Similarly incomprehensible is a morning without the every day paper for certain individuals. It is on the grounds that papers are seen wherever on the planet. They are printed and distributed in every single language known to man everywhere throughout the world. Papers are known as the reflections of the world. They reflect and report the patterns and occurring from all pieces of the world. Normally, they spread each part of life-national, universal, nearby, social, political, social and so on. Perusing English Newspaper can improve EFL understudies capacity of jargon and the ability of perusing. In any case, it doesnt imply that they have to investigate the all substance in the papers. To begin with, they can discover the subjects they are intrigued. At that point, simply read these themes they filter. They likewise dont finish each section of them. In the event that the substance is truly fascinating for understudies perused it altogether. So they may get positive temperament to peruse what they are intrigued. Steadily, they can assimilate numerous sorts of new data and have great stockpiling of jargon. Language educators can utilize the paper as a powerful instrument for exhibiting the ideas of perusing and composing, just as the structure of the English language. Utilizing papers thusly assists understudies with seeing reasonable instances of the down to earth uses of language structure and perception that they can use in their perusing and composing encounters all through the homeroom. It is a perception in Pakistan that when we dissect the substance of English papers we regularly find such words that are risen up out of English into Urdu or different dialects because of the way of life affiliation or bilingualism. The calling of news announcing and altering is absolutely about understanding of words and expressions. One can't decipher it until he has order over news language just as general language. Where English appreciates an exceptionally lofty status in Pakistan, It is basic that Pakistani journalist and editors work successfully in English. This examination presents an investigation of language change in Pakistani English papers because of culture affiliation or bilingualism. In light of the experimental information from Pakistani English papers and magazines, this exploration expects to show the English words that have been changed over into Urdu or other neighborhood dialects of Pakistan. It likewise presents the short outline of the utilization of English as a non-local assortment. This exploration proposes that varieties and changes in a language are a vital piece of bilingualism and multilingualism. This exploration fixates on the varieties in the English language because of language transformation in Pakistan and furthermore shows the critical job of the Urdu and other neighborhood dialects in the development of Pakistani English. Just those highlights that are found because of transformation have been talked about. In this examination, just that information has been considered where Urdu expressions and provisos have been utilized. This examination is keen on depicting various parts of language change in English when utilized in a non-local setting for example Pakistan. As a matter of first importance a lot of intrigue has been created in the English language because of its spread the world over and its utilization as a worldwide language. Presently a-days English has become a worldwide language. English is utilized everywhere throughout the world by a huge number of local and non-local speakers in view of its prevailing position. There are roughly 430 million L2 clients and 330 million L1 clients. So the non-local speakers utilize English more than the locals ones. Being a worldwide language, it is utilized nearly in all the nations of the world. At the point when individuals began utilizing English in non-local settings on account of its developing fame, it created as a transplanted language. Its predominance and force in Pakistan is becoming without question. For some Pakistanis, English has become a useful need as well as the language of chance; social notoriety, power, accomplishment just as social predominance. Such force is distinctively found in Pakistan where individuals will in general change from Urdu to English to make enhancement. Urdu is the national language of Pakistan and one of the two authority dialects of Pakistan. It is the most significant language of education in the nation. In Pakistan, Urdu-English change is a typical trait of instructed Pakistani bilinguals. Change happens when two dialects come in contact. English has accepted a semantic and social character of its own. This character shows itself all through the language at the word level, the expression level and the sentence level. It is the characteristic result of its ordinary contact with the Urdu language. An enormous number of borrowings from Urdu and the provincial dialects of Pakistan have entered in Pakistani English. Urdu-English change at the degree of the expression and proviso is accessible; this examination is probably going to overcome any barrier. The change information in this examination centers around the utilization of Urdu expressions and conditions in the English papers. The information has been gathered from the accompanying printed Pakistani English paper and magazines: 1. Day break (every day) (Lahore) 2. The news Articulation of the Problem: This exploration depends on the examination of English paper and to check the recurrence of words happened in Urdu or other nearby dialects. Goal of the Study: This investigation intends to discover the expressions of other Pakistani dialects that have been happened in English paper, in Daily Dawn and The news. To analyze the regular words happened in the two papers. Noteworthiness of Study: This investigation of paper gives us a careful overview to what degree the Urdu words have been utilized in English papers. This is a valuable research for language improvement of approach creators, educators, understudies and evaluation establishments. Impediment: We have concentrated altogether the sensible measure of English paper Dawn Daily Lahore and The News. We have characterized the area of paper. Based on this order we have checked the recurrence of the Urdu words happened in English. Delimitation: We have considered ten papers of both Daily Dawn and The News on everyday schedule because of the time cost requirements and on the grounds that they are the most established wellspring of data. Structure of Study: This examination is subjective in nature. It depends on the Meta examination of paper. The utilization of this technique is proper with the end goal of this investigation. Research is directed while utilizing subjective methodology. Since the aftereffect of the information examine is in the engaging marvel, for example, words and sentences.

Ibn Battuta in China Essay Example for Free

Ibn Battuta in China Essay When most men spread separation on the back of a voyaging creature, 75,000 miles of movement in a range of 30 years is an astounding accomplishment. When requested to name this chronicled person who secured such huge span during the medieval period, most will probably direct a credit toward Marco Polo who is the notable explorer of his time in Hakooki. com. Be that as it may, by one way or another, someone else who has voyage longer and sooner than Marco Polo has really secured this separation and visited 44 nations all through the world. Ibn Battuta’s voyages have nearly been designated into the obscurity if the world kept seeing history through the western view. Marco Polo, being European is far known than Ibn Battuta. Indeed, even his visit to China is for all intents and purposes obscure in contrast with comparative books of movement composed by Marco Polo notwithstanding the way that even right up 'til the present time there remains waiting, uncertain inquiries regarding whether Marco Polo genuinely visited China. Nonetheless, if the fantasy sounds sufficiently intriguing, it will in the end be accounted for as reality. On account of Marco Polo, the man has become a legendary people saint and when an individual climbs to such grand statures in the public’s eye, analysis, investigation and a sound portion of reality will normally fall by the wayside. Marco Polo’s ventures will at present stay acclaimed paying little mind to the discussion that encompasses his excursions and the similarly extensive discussion among researchers. It will be the objective of this exposition to move academic and verifiable headings and look to reveal insight into the subject by contrasting Ibn Battuta with Marco Polo’s travel in China. It isn't extraordinary for compelling individuals from history to be apparently eradicated from the recorded sequence. In the United States, history is chronicled from a western point of view with Western Europe being introduced as the focal point of the world. All things considered, people from different societies and parts of the world are regularly seen in a fringe way and not furnished with a similar profundity of authentic inclusion. Marco Polo was a saint whose birth birthplaces are in the Western World. Along these lines, his accomplishments are given incredible validity of respect in content. On account of Battuta, a Moroccan by plummet, his accomplishments won't be disregarded notwithstanding going through 17 years in China in contrast with Marco Polo’s travel which could have separated itself in numerous zones, for example, degree of land and trustworthiness. So as to comprehend crafted by Ibn Battuta, one must look at his initial true to life years to as to put his life’s work into a specific setting. Muhammed ibn Abdullah ibn Battuta or Ibn Battuta was conceived in Tangier, Morocco in a Muslim family in 1304 and began his movements when he was 20 years of age and kept going just about 30 years of his life as per Dunn (2004, 14). Battuta as per Francis in result has a place with the strict high society of the Mohammedan people group and got regular strict and academic instruction from scholars (1997:2). His movements began in 1325 when Ibn went on a journey to Mecca that proceeded until he had canvassed 75,000 miles in Kegan (1929:1). He had halted on most Muslim urban communities along his course and gave proper respect to sacred locales in Damascus, Syria, Hebron, Jerusalem and Bethlehem despite numerous deterrents he met en route as related in Monteil (1930:30).

Friday, August 21, 2020

Television, What A Waste Of Time :: essays research papers

TV, What A Waste of Time What amount does TV intend to you? Would you penance your psyche, your wellbeing, and your prosperity just to keep tightly to it? The vast majority would. They are uninformed of the serious impacts that TV has on our lives and on our future. I believe that TV ought to be prohibited from every American family unit as a result of the negative thoughts it misuses, the innovative personalities it obliterates, and the developing measure of children and grown-ups that are making this spot a greater and lazier nation. In the most recent decade, the measure of vioilence on TV has enormously expanded thus has the quantity of silly crimes and suicides in our nation. The indiscrimination and savagery demonstrated consistently on family TVs has interests us as Americans and desensitized our feeling of what's privilege and what's going on in the public eye. What stunned us from the start has now become standard supper time film. With the expansion in the quantity of TVs in America, to an ever increasing extent youngsters have been ransacked of their innovativeness. With TV, practically nothing is left to the creative mind. Prior to the presence of TV, all individuals wre compelled to make their own sentiments and pictures of things as far as they could tell. In any case, with TV, all the pictures are made for you and practically all the contentions are uneven. With TV, you no longer make your own thoughts; you are let them know. TV greatly affects the strength of America. The tempting points furthermore, one-sided communicates shows day by day across America are drawing an ever increasing number of individuals to the limits of their front room love seat for a more prominent measure of time. Idleness and gorging are a typical consequence of this choice made by grown-ups what's more, kids the same.

Saturday, August 8, 2020

Buy Film Review Professional Movie Reviews

Buy Film Review • Professional Movie Reviews Movie/Film Review Writing Service Home›Movie/Film Review Writing ServiceWriting a Movie Review with a Great Service â€" Better than EverWriting a movie review may not be as simple as you think. Just imagine how much time you need only to watch the movie, which you will describe in your movie review essay! It takes almost a whole life to produce an outstanding movie review, but you can do it if you know where to find a brilliant movie review essay example.If you don’t know how to write a movie review essay, you should know that this is one of the most challenging academic tasks. You will need to apply your critical and analytical thinking skills. You will need to evaluate the movie from different perspectives, including its artistic contribution and its visual aesthetics. Of course, you may have difficulty expressing yourself clearly.Movie critique can be so inspiring if you know how to do it right.  But if you dont? We recommend you not to wait for motivation or inspiration.  We can write an excellent film analysis right now. (Only Reliable Payment Systems)This is why it is never too late to get the help movie review type that you need today. Our service was created for students who struggle to produce a great movie review. We have huge experience writing all kinds of reviews, and we know that watching the movie alone won’t help. You have to dig deeper to produce a really impressive and memorable review of a popular movie. We have many writers in our team who are eager to stand by you and help you with your movie review. Professional movie reviews â€" this is what we do. Don’t hesitate to ask for help when you need it!Get a Price Quote

Tuesday, June 23, 2020

Discuss ornament in Pamela and Shamela - Literature Essay Samples

Oh! I feel an emotion even when I am relating this; methinks I see Pamela at this instant, with all the pride of ornament cast off. (Tickletext in Shamela Henry Fielding)Richardsons notion that to relate an emotion in ink just as it in the process of being formed, and his employment of the epistolary form for its inherent dramatic immediacy constitute his idea of writing to the moment, reflected in his eponymous Clarissa Harlowes demand of her friend Anna Howe; I would have you write your whole mind. This compulsive precision, reflecting the developing sense of interiority through the early modern period, and Richardson uses the epistolary technique to attend to a sort of temporal and emotional mimesis that is, in being written down immediately as their content is being experienced, his characters letters seem to have a fidelity to the real and in particular the real-time. Yet, in his parody of Pamela, Shamela, Henry Fielding clearly demonstrates not only the intrinsic impro bability of this form that Pamela is incapable of lying in bed with both Mrs. Jervis and Mr. B, and writing simultaneously but also that, far from casting off any pride of ornament, there is actually a great degree of artifice inherent in this form. As Pamela seeks to define herself through her penning, her epistles actually serve to obfuscate her identity further from the reader, rather than making her emotions and motives clearer. Indeed, it could be argued that Fielding had no need to search for evidence in support of his criticism against his legendary rival, but in fact Richardson himself demonstrates in his novel how the manipulation of texts may lead to impressions being formed of the author quite opposed to the effect the author is trying to create.In Pamela, Richardsons epistolary writing to the moment present[s] events and emotions with the freshness and intensity only possible while they are still occurring or very recent and Pamelas early letters in particular highl ight interruptions and shocks that seem to materialise in her writing only seconds after the actual events occur. Of course, other events related in the novel are clearly written later on during a day, and thus it is Pamelas emotions and feelings about the earlier happenings that are at this point being reported in real-time, with a self-conscious degree of retrospection present here. This retrospection increases the sense of interiority and introspection we have about Pamela, but if we are to believe this to be part of Richardsons writing to the moment, the sense of danger and urgency is certainly undermined when, for example, Pamela relates the story of her escape attempt in Lincolnshire, and the reader knows that Pamela must have survived in order to write down the details of her ordeal.Fieldings burlesque pastiche of Pamela is comic in the way that it preserves the main outline of Richardsons plot, but changes the motivations and emotions of the female protagonist, debunking w hat he perceived as the subjective nature of Richardsons naÃÆ'Â ¯ve moralising by transforming the angelic Pamela into a meretricious deceiver; a sham. Whilst Richardson sought to present Pamela as a paragon of virtue, Fielding sought to expose Richardsons view of virtue as innately hypocritical, as Shamelas incessant discourse on vartue demonstrates. She says I thought once of making a little fortune by my person. I now intend to make a great one by my vartue, thus expounding the idea that virtue has been reduced to chastity. Unlike Pamela, Shamela is honest to the reader about her scheming and manipulating; imagining I had continud long enough for my purpose in the sham Fit, I began to move my eyes, to loosen my Teeth, and the idea that Shamela is wily enough to understand where a faÃÆ'Â §ade and display of virtue might get here socially is deeply ironic and yet ingrained in the original text (though merely left for the reader to unpack). Pamela herself jokes about the cl oset scene and is clearly alive to the sexual associations of Mr B handing her a pair of stockings, and yet it is unclear as to whether she has a sort of sub-conscious enjoyment in holding out her chastity. If that be the case, Pamelas obsession with virtue makes a mockery of the word, for virtue need surely be as much a heartfelt and spiritual as a physical abstinence. Even Richardson could not have been completely naÃÆ'Â ¯ve to the sexual connoted ambiguities of all his characters faintings and blushings; it almost seems as if Richardson might be the one with the prurient fascination with rape and seduction. And yet it is reasonable to assume from the novels sub-title Or, Virtue Rewarded that Richardson wanted to present Pamela as spotless and blameless. In making Shamela say, ironically with all the pride of ornament cast off, Fielding insinuates that Pamela actually implies (and if Richardson or his character were honest, she would say) exactly the opposite that she is no t giving an accurate picture of herself in her letters at all. Therefore Fielding does not seek to alter and corrupt the motivations of Richardsons Pamela in his character Shamela, but simply de-code and present a more truthful picture of who Pamela really is, and the state of her virtue. We should also dispute the notion that if a piece of writing spills from the metaphorical heart or emotion of the character, it is automatically deemed realism. Pamelas letters contain all the secrets of her heart, and although she keeps them physically close to her body, under her clothes, this idea that her hearts confessions must be truth rely heavily on the heart itself being truthful. Whilst this may seem an obvious conclusion to draw, it is interesting to draw attention to the fact that the heart is traditionally prone to romantic fancy, and so although Pamela says I dont remember all I wrote, yet I know I wrote my heart, and that is not deceitful, this may well not be the case. It is tr ue to say the reader does receive the story from Pamelas perspective alone, and so if it were possible that her own motivations and feelings could escape her, and yet be deducible from her writings, then one could argue that we actually know more about Pamela than she knows about herself. Fielding parodies Pamelas implied of realism All the pride of ornament cast off sardonically mocking the sort of character who says that they are giving an un-adorned, natural picture of themselves, whilst unaware that the reader is getting quite a different one. Mr B tells Pamela you wont tell a downright fib for the world: but for equivocation! no Jesuit ever went beyond you! and so without wishing to follow too Freudian a line, scrutinising the idea of the sub-conscious, it is important to consider not only whether Pamela is a deliberate conniver, as Fielding would persuade us, but also, and more charitably, the possibility of her being self-deceiving.It is also obvious to the reader that Ri chardsons epistolary technique inheres artifice, since the writer of the letters must be aware of a reader, an audience, and will, consciously or not, act up to this. Fielding exposes what he discerns is actually a manipulative self-consciousness in Shamelas character, but this is intrinsically wrapped up with issues of intention and interpretation. Did Richardson intend to portray Pamela as pure, and did Pamela herself intend to use a display of virtue (or indeed, her virtue itself) to ensnare Mr B? Did she don a faÃÆ'Â §ade just as she picked up a new pen and changed her clothes (as implied in Shamela)? The fact remains that neither Pamela in her letters, nor Richardson in his novel, is able to control the interpretation of them. Pamelas letters, far more than simply a way of dividing up a long moralistic narrative, are actually obtrusive agents in the action the writing of them is only the conception, after which anything from copying to stealing, hiding to verbally exami ning could happen to them. For Richardson, the letters are almost a character in the narrative, and whilst very much part of Pamelas self-conscious self-definition, the way that they are altered emphasises the fickleness of text. Not only whatever Pamela tries to write, but also now whatever Pamela tries to be may be re-worked and manipulated by any interceptor of the particular letter. Just as letters are material artifacts, handled, distributed and destroyed by others, so is Pamelas identity when the embodiment of it is no longer in a fifteen-year old body repetitively crying for her virtue, but instead in the pieces of paper on which she is doing it. Richardson seems keen to show readers and writers, selecting and interpreting text, manipulating the language of a letter that, once out of its writers hand, is a voice independent of that author.Whilst Richardsons illustration of the way that the independent voice of text both contributes and is in conflict with an authors claim s for the authority of writing, it also places him in a weak position as far as to the authority of the text in which he is expounding this argument. Fielding seizes upon this in his mockery, and thus we have an interesting paradigm in Pamelas letters for the way in which Richardsons novel and character may have been interpreted differently in Shamela; some might say that Richardson should have seen his reviewers criticisms.